Endovascular Solutions for Iliac and Lower Extremity Junctional Injuries
Hemorrhage is the second leading cause of death in trauma and non-compressible torso hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death within this population. Vascular injuries to the pelvis and lower extremity junctional zone may be difficult to control with direct pressure and complex to approach with open surgery. Endovascular interventions such as balloon occlusion, stenting and embolization are potential alternatives or adjuncts to traditional open surgery in patients with blunt or penetrating vascular injuries to the pelvis. This review of the literature will outline contemporary endovascular management strategies for iliac and junctional zone injuries.