Contemporary Utilization of Zone III REBOA for Temporary Control of Pelvic and Lower Junctional Hemorrhage Reliably Achieves Hemodynamic Stability in Severely Injured Patients
Background: Aortic occlusion is a valuable adjunct for management of traumatic pelvic and lower extremity junctional hemorrhage.
Methods: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma's Aortic Occlusion in Resuscitation for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery registry was reviewed for patients requiring Zone III resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) from eight verified trauma centers. After excluding patients in arrest, demographics, elements of treatment and outcomes were identified.
Results: From Nov 2013 – Dec 2016, 30 patients had Zone III REBOA placed. Median age was 41.0 (IQR 38); median ISS 41.0 (IQR 12). Hypotension (SBP < 90mm Hg) was present on admission in 30.0% and tachycardia (HR > 100 bpm) in 66.7%. Before REBOA placement, vital signs changed in this cohort with hypotension in 83.3% and tachycardia noted in 90%. Median initial pH was 7.14 (IQR 0.22), and median admission lactate 9.9 mg/dL (IQR 5). Pelvic binders were utilized in 40%. Occlusion balloon devices included Coda™ (70%), ER-REBOA™ (13.3%), Reliant™ (10%). After REBOA, hemodynamics improved in 96.7% and stability (BP consistently > 90 mm Hg) was achieved in 86.7%. Median duration of REBOA was 53.0 mins (IQR 112). Median PRBC and FFP requirements were 19.0 units (IQR (17) and 17.0 units (IQR 14), respectively. One amputation unrelated to REBOA utilization was required. Systemic complications included AKI (23.3%) and MODS (10%). REBOA specific complications included groin hematoma (3.3%) and distal thromboembolization (16.7%). Survival to discharge was 56.7%, with in-hospital deaths occurring in the ED 7.7%, OR 23.1%, ICU 69.2%.
Conclusions: This review discusses the specifics of the contemporary use of Zone III REBOA placement as well as local and systemic complications for patients in extremis with pelvic/junctional hemorrhage. Further review is required determine optimal patient selection.
Level of Evidence: Level IV
Study Type: Therapeutic
Zone III REBOA, Pelvic Bleeding, Junctional Hemorrhage